The IV Den’s A-Z Ingredients

Vitamin B-Complex

B-Complex is a combination of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) that aids in cellular repair and energy production. These vitamins work together to achieve desired effects.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine): Thiamine plays a role in energy metabolism, the immune system, and the nervous system. It may help prevent type 2 diabetes, several cardiovascular diseases, some vision and kidney disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer’s disease.

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Riboflavin is a powerful antioxidant and plays a vital role in maintaining healthy blood cells and boosting metabolism.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Niacin plays a critical role in proper functioning of the nervous and digestive systems. It is necessary for energy production and metabolism of fatty acids. It also may be essential for healthy skin, nails, and hair.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Pantothenic acid is essential for the development of the central nervous system. It is involved in energy production and plays a role in different metabolic and anabolic cycles involved in the production of amino acids, blood cells, and other essential organic compounds.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Vitamin B6 is crucial in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and is essential for good mental health. It also has a direct effect on immune function. It plays a role in metabolism of amino acids and is a necessary cofactor in the folate cycle, which is critical in preventing anemia. This is also a first-line treatment for nausea in pregnancy.

 

Possible uses: wellness, fatigue, reduce brain fog, fight autoimmune disease, and nausea/vomiting.

 

Resources 

  • Ford, T. C., Downey, L. A., Simpson, T., McPhee, G., Oliver, C., & Stough, C. (2018). The Effect of a High-Dose Vitamin B Multivitamin Supplement on the Relationship between Brain Metabolism and Blood Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress: A Randomized Control Trial. Nutrients, 10(12), 1860. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10121860

  • J. C. Kerns, C. Arundel, and L. S. Chawla, “Thiamin Deficiency in People with Obesity,” Adv. Nutr., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 147–153, Mar. 2015.

  • Maizels, M., Blumenfeld, A., & Burchette, R. (2004). A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 44(9), 885-890.

  • Manzardo AM, He J, Poje A, Penick EC, Campbell J, Butler MG. Double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of benfotiamine for severe alcohol dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Dec 1;133(2):562-70. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.07.035. Epub 2013 Aug 11. PMID: 23992649; PMCID: PMC3818307.

  • Sahakian, V. I. C. K. E. N., Rouse, D. W. I. G. H. T., Sipes, S. U. S. A. N., Rose, N. A. N. C. Y., & Niebyl, J. E. N. N. I. F. E. R. (1991). Vitamin B6 is effective therapy for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Obstetrics and gynecology, 78(1), 33-36.

  • Schoenen, J., Jacquy, J., & Lenaerts, M. (1998). Effectiveness of high‐dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis A randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 50(2), 466-470.

  • Taylor, A. J., Sullenberger, L. E., Lee, H. J., Lee, J. K., & Grace, K. A. (2004). Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol (ARBITER) 2: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of extended-release niacin on atherosclerosis progression in secondary prevention patients treated with statins. Circulation, 110(23), 3512-3517.

Biotin (Vitamin B7)

Biotin (vitamin H; coenzyme R; classified as a B vitamin) is a vitamin that is important for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and amino acids.

 

Possible uses: bone health, hair, and nail health, metabolism boost.

Resources

  • https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Biotin-HealthProfessional/

  • Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998.

  • Mock DM. Biotin. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:390-8.

  • Zempleni J, Wijeratne SSK, Kuroishi T. Biotin. In: Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th ed. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012:359-74.

  • Pacheco-Alvarez D, Solórzano-Vargas RS, Del Río AL. Biotin in metabolism and its relationship to human disease. Arch Med Res 2002;33:439-47. [PubMed abstract]

  • Staggs CG, Sealey WM, McCabe BJ, Teague AM, Mock DM. Determination of the biotin content of select foods using accurate and sensitive HPLC/avidin binding. Journal of food composition and analysis: an official publication of the United Nations University, International Network of Food Data Systems 2004;17:767-76. [PubMed abstract]

  • Colombo VE, Gerber F, Bronhofer M, Floersheim GL. Treatment of brittle fingernails and onychoschizia with biotin: scanning electron microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1127-32. [PubMed abstract]

  • Floersheim GL. [Treatment of brittle fingernails with biotin]. Z Hautkr 1989;64:41-8. [PubMed abstract]

  • Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis 1993;51:303-5. [PubMed abstract]

  • Hochman LG, Scher RK, Meyerson MS. Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation. Cutis 1993;51:303-5. [PubMed abstract]

Methylcobalamin (Vitamin B12)

Methylcobalamin (Vitamin B12) supports metabolism and helps make red blood cells, DNA, RNA, energy, and tissues, and keeps nerve cells healthy.

Possible uses: general wellness, mental health, anemia, autoimmune disease, boost metabolism.

 

Resources

Vitamin C / Ascorbic Acid 

Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an essential vitamin that has antioxidant properties and helps to form cartilage, teeth, skin, bones, and tissue repair. It is also crucial in fighting infection and inflammation.

 

Possible uses: immune support, scar/wound healing, iron absorption/anemia, general wellness, autoimmune support.

 

Resources

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 is essential in the production of energy. It is also a significant antioxidant and prevents damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids. Often when people take a statin for high cholesterol, their Coenzyme Q10 levels are low, and supplementation should be considered.

Possible uses: chronic fatigue, management of diabetes, migraine prevention.

Resources:

  • https://www.nccih.nih.gov/health/coenzyme-q10

  • Alehagen U, Aaseth J, Lindahl TL, Larsson A, Alexander J. Dietary Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 Prevents Increase in Plasma D-Dimer While Lowering Cardiovascular Mortality in an Elderly Swedish Population. Nutrients. 2021 Apr 17;13(4):1344. doi: 10.3390/nu13041344. PMID: 33920725; PMCID: PMC8073286. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33920725/

  • Tóth Š, Šajty M, Pekárová T, Mughees A, Štefanič P, Katz M, Spišáková K, Pella J, Pella D. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid and coenzyme Q10 to statin therapy in patients with combined dyslipidemia. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2017 Jul 26;28(4):327-336. doi: 10.1515/jbcpp-2016-0149. PMID: 28541926. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28541926/

  • Suksomboon N, Poolsup N, Juanak N. Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on metabolic profile in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2015 Aug;40(4):413-8. doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12280. Epub 2015 Apr 25. PMID: 25913756. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25913756/

Cholecalciferol (D3)

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplementation and is one of the most common deficiencies seen in the population. Vitamin D deficiency is often associated with chronic fatigue, a weakened immune system, and weak bones.

Possible uses: wellness, immune boost, supports bone health, energy boost.

Resources

  • Bergman, P., Norlin, A. C., Hansen, S., Rekha, R. S., Agerberth, B., Björkhem-Bergman, L., … & Andersson, J. (2012). Vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with frequent respiratory tract infections: a randomised and double-blind intervention study. BMJ open, 2(6), e001663.

  • Jorde, R., Sneve, M., Figenschau, Y., Svartberg, J., & Waterloo, K. (2008). Effects of vitamin D supplementation on symptoms of depression in overweight and obese subjects: randomized double blind trial. Journal of internal medicine, 264(6), 599-609.

  • Hossein-Nezhad, A., Spira, A., & Holick, M. F. (2013). Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. PloS one, 8(3), e58725.

  • https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminD-HealthProfessional/

  • https://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1015/p841.html

  • https://www.medicinenet.com/calcitriol-injectable/article.htm

Glutathione 

Glutathione (GSH) is very important for removing toxins from the body and is required for DNA and RNA production. It prevents damage to cells.

Possible uses: general wellness, immune support, skin health, liver detoxification, chronic fatigue relief.

Resources 

  • Legault Z, Bagnall N, Kimmerly DS. The Influence of Oral L-Glutamine Supplementation on Muscle Strength Recovery and Soreness Following Unilateral Knee Extension Eccentric Exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015 Oct;25(5):417-26. doi: 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0209. Epub 2015 Mar 26. PMID: 25811544.

  • Hauser, R. A., Lyons, K. E., McClain, T., Carter, S., & Perlmutter, D. (2009). Randomized, double‐blind, pilot evaluation of intravenous glutathione in Parkinson’s disease. Movement Disorders, 24(7), 979-983

  • Wischmeyer PE, Lynch J, Liedel J, Wolfson R, Riehm J, Gottlieb L, Kahana M. Glutamine administration reduces Gram-negative bacteremia in severely burned patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial versus isonitrogenous control. Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov;29(11):2075-80. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200111000-00006. PMID: 11700398

  • Watanabe, F., Hashizume, E., Chan, G. P., & Kamimura, A. (2014). Skin-whitening and skin-condition-improving effects of topical oxidized glutathione: a double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial in healthy women.nical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 7, 267–274. https://doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S68424

Magnesium Chloride 

Magnesium is essential to practically all body systems. It plays a role in most chemical reactions in the body.

Possible Uses: wellness, migraine prevention and management, mood stability, pain disorders, bone health.

Resources

  • https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/

  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

  • Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD, eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2010:527-37.

  • Rude RK. Magnesium. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore, Mass: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012:159-75.

  • Guerrera MP, Volpe SL, Mao JJ. Therapeutic uses of magnesium. Am Fam Physician 2009;80:157-62. [PubMed abstract]

  • Holland S, Silberstein SD, Freitag F, Dodick DW, Argoff C, Ashman E. Evidence-based guideline update: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults. Neurology 2012;78:1346-53. [PubMed abstract]

  • Sun-Edelstein C, Mauskop A. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine. Expert Rev Neurother 2009;9:369–79 [PubMed abstract]

Taurine

Taurine is an amino acid that has demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory and energy-boosting effects. Taurine supplementation may support better physical function and cognitive performance.

Possible uses: energy production, reduce inflammation.

Resources

  • da Silva, L. A., Tromm, C. B., Bom, K. F., Mariano, I., Pozzi, B., da Rosa, G. L., … & Pinho, R. A. (2014). Effects of taurine supplementation following eccentric exercise in young adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39(1), 101-104

  • Haidari, F., Asadi, M., Mohammadi-Asl, J., & Ahmadi-Angali, K. (2020). Effect of weight-loss diet combined with taurine supplementation on body composition and some biochemical markers in obese women: a randomized clinical trial. Amino Acids, 52(8), 1115-1124.

  • Ra, S. G., Miyazaki, T., Ishikura, K., Nagayama, H., Komine, S., Nakata, Y., … & Ohmori, H. (2013). Combined effect of branched-chain amino acids and taurine supplementation on delayed onset muscle soreness and muscle damage in high-intensity eccentric exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 10(1), 1-11.

  • Rosa, F. T., Freitas, E. C., Deminice, R., Jordao, A. A., & Marchini, J. S. (2014). Oxidative stress and inflammation in obesity after taurine supplementation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. European journal of nutrition, 53(3), 823-830.

  • Sun, Q., Wang, B., Li, Y., Sun, F., Li, P., Xia, W., … & Zhu, Z. (2016). Taurine supplementation lowers blood pressure and improves vascular function in prehypertension: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Hypertension, 67(3), 541-549.

Zinc

Zinc is an essential micronutrient. It is a key component in many essential chemical reactions in the body that carry out important functions like making DNA and stabilizing cells.

Possible uses: general wellness, mental wellness, immune support, hair loss relief, skin health, and bone health.

Resources:

  • Junaidah B Barnett, Maria C Dao, Davidson H Hamer, Ruth Kandel, Gary Brandeis, Dayong Wu, Gerard E Dallal, Paul F Jacques, Robert Schreiber, Eunhee Kong, Simin N Meydani, Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 103, Issue 3, March 2016, Pages 942–951, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.115188

  • Leitzmann MF, Stampfer MJ, Wu K, Colditz GA, Willet WC, Giovannucci EL. Zinc supplement use and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(13):1004–1007.

  • Lukacik M, Thomas RL, Aranda JV. A meta-analysis of the effects of oral zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea. Pediatrics. 2008 Feb;121(2):326-36. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-0921. PMID: 18245424.

  • Mahalanabis D, Lahiri M, Paul D, Gupta S, Gupta A, Wahed MA, Khaled MA. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of treatment with zinc or vitamin A in infants and young children with severe acute lower respiratory infection. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 Mar;79(3):430-6. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/79.3.430. PMID: 14985218.

  • Saper RB, Rash R. Zinc: an essential micronutrient. Am Fam Physician. 2009 May 1;79(9):768-72. PMID: 20141096; PMCID: PMC2820120.

  • Science, M., Johnstone, J., Roth, D. E., Guyatt, G., & Loeb, M. (2012). Zinc for the treatment of the common cold: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne, 184(10), E551–E561. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.111990

 

NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide)

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) is a universal cellular electron transporter, coenzyme, and signaling molecule present in all cells of the body and is essential for cell function and viability. Along with NAD+, its reduced (NADH) and phosphorylated forms (NADP+ and NADPH) are also important. NAD+ and its redox partner NADH are vital for energy (ATP) production in all parts of cellular respiration: glycolysis in the cytoplasm and the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain in the mitochondria.

NADP+ and NADPH tend to be used in anabolic reactions, including biosynthesis of cholesterol and nucleic acids, elongation of fatty acids, and regeneration of glutathione, a key antioxidant in the body. In other cellular processes, NAD+ and its other forms are used as substrates by NAD+-dependent/-consuming enzymes to make post-translational modifications to proteins. NAD+ also serves as a precursor for the secondary messenger molecule cyclic ADP ribose, which is important for calcium signaling.

NAD+ levels are highest in newborns and steadily decline with increasing chronological age. After age 50, they are approximately half of the levels seen in younger adults. The question of why NAD+ levels decline with age has been investigated in model organisms. During redox reactions NAD+ and NADH are not consumed but continuously recycled; however, during other metabolic processes, NAD+ is consumed by NAD+-dependent enzymes and thus could become depleted over time, showing it may contribute to increased DNA damage, age-related conditions and diseases, and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Possible uses: May assist with Anti-aging, Chronic fatigue, Recovery from chronic alcohol or drug use, Detoxification

Methionine/Inositol/Choline (MIC) 

MIC is a combination of amino acids that stimulates the liver to promote the process of metabolism. This injection also may help to increase energy levels, suppress appetite by reducing the release of certain neurotransmitters, increase levels of serotonin, and support a healthy endocrine system. This formula is often given in weightloss clinics under the common name, “fat-burning injections.”

Possible uses: weight loss, appetite management, metabolism support, energy production.

Resources

  • Allen LH. Vitamin B12. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, et al., eds. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. 2nd ed. London and New York: Informa Healthcare; 2010:812-20.

  • Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B(6), Folate, Vitamin B(12), Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1998.

  • Carmel R. Cobalamin (vitamin B12). In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, Tucker KL, Ziegler TR, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:369-89.

  • Mato, J. M., Martínez-Chantar, M. L. & Lu, S. C. S-adenosylmethionine metabolism and liver disease. Annals of Hepatology vol. 12 183–189 (2013).

  • Stabler SP. Vitamin B12. In: Marriott BP, Birt DF, Stallings VA, Yates AA, eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 11th ed. Washington, DC: Elsevier; 2020:257-71.

Toradol/Ketorolac

Toradol is a Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug. It is not a narcotic drug. It is not a sedative. Mechanism of action is to block prostaglandins in the body. Prostaglandins are natural chemicals the body makes that cause pain, fever, and inflammation.

Common uses: Treat moderate to severe pain, Pain secondary to inflammatory process, Migraine, Fever

Resource

Famotidine 

Famotidine is used to decrease stomach acid concentration and volume of secretion. It is a competitive histamine H-receptor antagonist (H2RA) that binds to the H-receptors found on parietal cells of the stomach lining, blocking histaminergic response.

Common uses: Duodenal ulcer, Gastric ulcer, GERD, Prevention of GI injury with chronic NSAID use, Refractory urticaria, Symptomatic relief of gastritis

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine. It competitively blocks H1 receptors, thereby preventing the actions of histamine on bronchial smooth muscle, capillaries, and gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle. This prevents histamine-induced bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, increased capillary permeability, and GI smooth muscle spasms.

Common uses: Allergies, Insomnia, Pruritus / urticaria, Motion sickness, Abdominal pain / nausea, Migraine, Anaphylaxis

Resources

Ondansetron Hydrochloride (Zofran)

Ondansetron Hydrochloride is an antiemetic and selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist prescribed for the treatment of nausea and vomiting.

Common uses: Post surgical nausea and vomiting, Post chemo nausea and vomiting, Nausea and vomiting prevention, Nausea and vomiting secondary to gastroenteritis

Olanzapine (Zyprexa)

Olanzapine is a second generation antipsychotic. Extensively metabolized through the liver. Exact mechanism of action is unknown. It antagonizes dopamine, serotonin 5-HT2, and other receptors.

Common uses: Nausea and vomiting in cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, Refractory nausea and vomiting in cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, Abdominal pain/nausea, Migraine

Metoclopramide (Reglan)

Metoclopramide is a dopamine antagonist that is used as an antiemetic (anti-vomiting) agent used to treat nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, heartburn and early satiety (feeling of fullness).

Common uses: Nausea and vomiting, Acid reflux, Migraine associated nausea and vomiting, Abdominal pain

Resources

Dexamethasone (Decadron)

Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid, similar to a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to treat inflammatory processes by inhibition of inflammatory cells and suppression of expression of inflammatory mediators. The effects of decadron are approximately 30 times more potent than cortisol, our natural corticosteroid hormone.

Common uses: Nausea and vomiting, Migraine-standard acute migraine therapy, parenteral treatment with decadron reduces the rate of early headache recurrence.